Observational Details 观测细节 

Observers submitting observations by electronic means (generally e-mail) are required to include observer, measurer and telescope details in every submission.


Observation batches that do not include an observational header will not be recognized as containing observations by the automated processes and will be ignored.


The observational details are to be contained in a series of header lines, beginning with certain keywords specified below and placed before any observations.


  • The first line must begin COD and be followed by a three-character observatory code. If you are reporting observations from a new site, you must specify XXX as the
  • 第一行必须以COD开始,紧跟着三个字母的观测地代码。如果你正要从一个新的观测地报告观测值,你必须填写XXX,然后再填写下面内容:
  • Other lines, which may follow in any order, begin:
    • CON (followed by the contact details) CON (紧跟着详细的联系资料)
    • OBS (followed by the list of observers, no programs) OBS (紧跟着观测者的名单,非天文组织)
    • MEA (followed by the list of measurers, no programs) MEA (紧跟着测量仪器的名单,非天文组织) 
    • TEL (followed by details of the telescopeTEL (紧跟着望远镜的详细资料,详情查阅这里
    • NET (followed by the abbreviated name(s) of the catalogue(s) used for the reductions). NET (紧跟着做数据归算用的简短的星表名)
    • BND (followed by single character representing the mag band used for magnitude estimates) BND (紧跟着用单个字母代表被用作测量星等的光谱型)
    • COM (followed by a textual comment) COM (紧跟着文本方式的叙述)
    • NUM (followed by a count of the observations in this batch) NUM (紧跟着本批观测的数量值)
    • TYP (see Guide to Minor Body AstrometryTYP (参考小天体测定指导
  • An additional keyword, ACK, enables the Minor Planet Center automatically acknowledge receipt of your observations. The contents of the ACK text are unimportant (although it should mean something to you!) and will simply be e-mailed back to you to let you know that your e-mail arrived. If it is necessary to communicate designations to you, these will be sent after the batch is processed.
  • 另一个关键词,ACK,它能确保小行星中心自动回复收到了你的观测资料。ACK文本的内容是不重要的(尽管它对你意味着些什么!),它仅仅是一个简单的e—mail回复,让你知道你的e-mail已被收到。如果对你来说回执内容表示一定含义,数据被接收后,它将会回复给你的EMAIL邮箱。
  • By default, the acknowledgement is sent to the e-mail address from which the original message was sent. You can override this default behavior by specifying the AC2 keyword, following it by one or more Internet-style e-mail address, e.g.:
         AC2 scully@fbi.gov,mulder@fbi.gov
      AC2 scully@fbi.gov,mulder@fbi.gov

    The only restriction of the number of e-mail addresses is that the total length of the line (including the four characters `AC2 ‘) must be less than or equal to 80 characters. Note that any e-mail address specified with the AC2 keyword is NOT enclosed within square brackets. Any of the e-mail addresses specified can be forwarding addresses at your local site.


Please note the following requirements:


  • All lines must be 80 columns or less in width. 每一行的宽度必须不多于80列
  • The keywords must be in capitals and begin in column 1. 关键词必须大写并且从第1列开始
  • The keyword must be followed by a space (ASCII 32). 关键词后必须紧跟着一个空格(ASCII 32)
  • The CON, OBS and MEA lines may extend onto a second or subsequent line, repeating the keyword as necessary. CON,OBS和MEA行能扩展到第二行或更多的行,但每一行必须重复这个关键词
  • Names of individuals must be specified as initials + surname with spaces separating each part of the name.如果你名字每一个个体的名字之间必须用一个空格隔开
  • Initials given must be as given on official documents (e.g., passports, driving licenses, etc.). If your name is `Robert’, but you use `Bob’ in day-to-day usage, you must still specify your initial as `R.’ not `B.’. 名字必须按正式凭证(如护照,驾照等)上的写。比如,你的名字是`Robert’,可你平时常用`Bob’称呼,在这儿,你必须用`R.’指定你的名,而不是用 `B.’
  • Names must be specified as mixture of capital and lower-case letters, they must be separated from any following name(s) by a comma and they msut not be broken across lines. 名字必须混合大小写,它们之间在姓后用一个逗号分开,并且不能换行
  • Names that contain non-standard characters (e.g., accents or cedillas) may be specified using standard TeX notation–alternatively, an explanation of any special characters required must be included above the header. 包含了不标准字符的名字(如重音和变音符)可以用standard TeX notation精确确定,或者是在标头中对这些特殊的字符做个解释
  • When there are multiple versions of the NET catalogue, be sure to include the version identifier. Don’t simply specify “USNO” or “GSC”: write them as, for example, “USNO-B1.0” or “GSC-2.2”. 当NET有不同的版本时,确保要注明版本的标识。不能简单地写”USNO” 或”GSC”:例如,应该如下写”USNO-B1.0″ 或”GSC-2.2″.
  • Specification of telescopes must follow the following format: aperture, focal ratio (optional), type of instrument and CCD specifier. Do not specify specific brands of CCD. Do not split telescope details across different TEL lines. Valid examples are 1.0-m f/4.3 reflector + CCD or 0.28-m f/6 Schmidt-Cassegrain + CCD. Further information on telescope details is available望远镜的详细资料按如下形式写:口径,焦比(可选择的),望远镜类型和CCD的类型。不用指明CCD的牌子。不要将望远镜的详细资料分写在TEL的不同行。合理的写法应该是:1.0-m f/4.3 reflector + CCD or 0.28-m f/6 Schmidt-Cassegrain + CCD.更多的资料查阅telescope details is available.
  • All keywords may be repeated within the body of observations as required. The values associated with repeated keywords apply from the time they are first defined to the time that they are redefined. 所有的关键词可以按需要重复使用,重复使用的关键词,其适用范围为第一次定义到再次定义之间
  • The contact’s e-mail address must be specified within square brackets in the Internet style. Please note that e-mail addresses are given ONLY for the contact person. 用于联系个人的的e-mail地址必须以方括号括起来内。请注意,该地址仅仅用于联系观测者个人
  • Only one contact name and address may be given. 只给联系人的一个姓名和地址

Examples of valid headers are as follows: 合理的标头样例如下:

COD 500
CON S. Holmes, 221B Baker Street, London NW1 4JW, England
CON [sholmes@mycroft.holmes.gov.uk]
OBS H. Poirot, P. Mason, L. Columbo, C. Chan
MEA J. Watson
TEL 0.50-m f/3.0 reflector + CCD
ACK Batch 001
AC2 dwatson@mycroft.holmes.gov.uk

COD 500
OBS D. K. Scully, F. W. Mulder, W. Skinner
ACK Batch 042: The truth is in here

The second example shows the minimal header that should be supplied: the contact address, telescope and catalogue details will be taken from a default file, and the list of measurers will be assumed to be the same as the list of observers. You should only use the minimal header form if you are the only observer at that code: don’t use the form for sites with multiple programs. 第二个例子显示了标头中需提供的最起码的资料:联系人的地址,望远镜和分类的详细信息将来自一个默认的文件,仪器的清单确保要和观测者的清单是一致的。如果你仅仅是那个天文台的唯一观测者,建议你就用这种简单的标头形式,对于多个项目的观测组织不要使用这种格式。

The format of the TEL and NET lines must be as illustrated in recent MPCs (note that specific makes of CCD are not mentioned).


If this is your first submission and your observing site does yet have an observatory code, this is specified as: 如果这是你第一次递交资料,你的观测点还没有一个天文观测地代码,可按如下形式写:


An observatory code will be supplied upon acceptance of the observations for publication. 天文观测地代码将在你的观测数据被接受并公布后被授予

If your observatory code distinguishes between different programs you may specify the program code after the observatory code, as in the following example:


COD 675 4

Note that program codes are assigned by the MPC, not the observer. 注意:这个项目代码是由MPC指定的,不是由观测者自行决定的

The following examples show incorrect headers (with the reason(s) given in parentheses on the offending line(s)): 下面的例子显示了不正确的标头(圆括号内给出了相应行不正确的原因)

COD 500
OBS J.M. Jarre          (Initials in name not separated by a space)名字各部分没有用空格隔开

COD 500
OBS Vangelis Papathanassiou              (First name in full, rather than initial)第一个名字写的全称,而不是大写缩写
MEA M. OLDFIELD                          (Name entirely in capitals)姓全用的大写
TEL 0.50-m f/4.5 reflector + Graff1 CCD  (Make of CCD must not be mentioned)CCD制造商没必要提及
NET Guide Star Catalogue                 (Use abbreviation GSC)用GSC缩写就行
OBS J. Garcia           (No COD line) 没有COD行
OBS P. McCartney
COD 500                 (COD line must come first) COD行必须在第一行